plants for asthma treatment

Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Thrice a day, Pounded and mixed with dried powdered root of, Pounded and mixed with dried powered root of, Boiled for 7–9 minutes. Boiled for 6–10 minutes. Unfortunately, there is no cure for asthma at this point. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5 minutes. These species are also traditionally utilised as medicine to treat different human diseases in South Africa and other African countries. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Furthermore, of an estimated 3.9 million South Africans diagnosed with asthma, 1.5% die of this condition annually [12]. B. Cunningham, T. S. A. Thring and F. M. Weitz, “Medicinal plant use in the Bredasdorp/Elim region of the Southern Overberg in the Western Cape Province of South Africa,”, J. J. J. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Overall the most widely distributed medicinal plant species (6.7%, n=7) used in all these geographical areas were Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Lasiosiphon caffer, Enicostema axillare, Mimusops obovata, Sclerocarya birrea, and Stylochaeton natalensis. However, general ethnobotanical studies carried out in other African countries, to name a few, Uganda [19], Kenya [20], Lesotho [21], and Botswana [22], highlighted that THs of other cultures do treat asthma and related conditions. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. To the best of our knowledge ethnobotanical records regarding uses of G. herbaceum, O. europaea, O. ficus-indica, and P. granatum in the management of asthma are nonexistent in Africa, thus noted in … Data was collected from May 2017 to October 2017 using a semistructured interview with 140 THs during face-to-face interviews, supplemented by field trips for participant’s observation and specimen collections. Boiled for 5–8 minutes. Thrice a day, Boiled for 4–8 minutes. A total of two (7.4%) species D. elata and S. serratuloides were multiused by Bapedi THs to cure asthma, fatigue, and wheezing. Thrice a day. Thrice a day, Boiled for 4–11 minutes. Asthma … The traditional applications of some species used by these THs to treat asthma and related conditions are comparable to that noted in literature amongst the various cultures in South Africa, other African countries, and elsewhere; thus demonstrating that there is a cultural link between diverse ethnic groups of the world, and exchange of traditional healing knowledge pertinent to these afflictions. Thrice a day. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5 minutes. Boiling (48.3%, n=74), pounding (45%, n=69), pounding and boiling (2.6%, n=4), chewing and macerating (1.3%, n=2, for each), rubbing (0.6%, n=1), and squeezing and pounding (0.6%, n=1), respectively, were the principal methods of herbal preparation in the present study. A growing body of research is focusing on marijuana’s effects on asthma and whether cannabis plants can offer some relief for the condition. Three species, L. leonurus (root and leaf), S. birrea (bark and fruit), and P. africanum (bark and root), were harvested for their two different parts. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. The observed variation might be attributed to extremely larger sample size of THs and spatial coverage included in our study compared to these two studies. The knowledge of D. anomala use by Bapedi THs to treat asthma is supported by finding of Van der Merwe [44] who worked with Zulu THs. However, such species are well-known and widely used as traditional cure for other human diseases across Africa. Analysis of FL of each plant species mentioned by Bapedi THs as a treatment of asthma and related symptom followed the formula displayed below:where was the number of THs who claim the use of a particular plant species to treat asthma or related symptom and was the total number of THs who mentioned the use of species as a medicine to treat any given ailment/s (asthma or related symptom). The remainder (12%, n=3) of the species, namely, E. autumnalis (fatigue, nasal congestion), E. pallidiflora (fatigue, nasal congestion, and wheeze), and W. somnifera (fatigue and laboured breathing) were multiused. Mint For instance, Nigerian THs also use E. camaldulensis [53], M. indica [54], and S. longepedunculata [55] to treat asthma. Partner, Advertising & Commercial Relationships. Furthermore, larger number of people still rely heavily on traditional methods of health care for treatment of various ailments [29]; thus THs and their services play an important role in the wellbeing of people. B. Kirenga and M. Okot-Nwang, “The proportion of asthma and patterns of asthma medications prescriptions among adult patients in the chest, accident and emergency units of a tertiary health care facility in Uganda,”, E. J. Marsden, S. W. Somwe, C. Chabala, J. For instance, in almost every pharmaceutical chemist in Limpopo Province, there are various scientifically authenticated herbal formulations (e.g., Hypo-Plus®) made from H. hemerocallidea [66], which are being advertised on local radios and newspapers as effective energy and immune boosters. South Africa is no exclusion and studies by Hutchings [23], Thring and Weitz [24], De Beer and Van Wyk [25], York et al. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Overall all taxa recorded in this study are known medicinal plants in South Africa and thus form part of local traditional ethnopharmacopoeia of various cultures in this country. Thrice a day, Boiled for 9 minutes. Amongst these species only P. zeylanica [68] and P. punctulata [69] were previously recorded in literature as asthma treatment but no records of its applications for nasal congestion exist. He's an experienced Biologist with a history of working in the environmental services industry. Parsley … Utilisation of both species for wheezing is currently restricted to the Bapedi THs. This might be true since the known general medicinal usage of K. wilmsii is presently restricted to this culture. [26], and Bhat [27] also emphasised this. With the exclusion of Z. aethiopica which is also used as medicine for asthma by the Xhosa people of South Africa [52], the remaining species, namely, E. camaldulensis, M. indica, O. ficus-indica, P. granatum, S. longepedunculata, X. caffra, and Z. mays, used exclusively by Bapedi for this condition, are recorded for the first time in South Africa as asthma therapies. In a similar survey carried out amongst THs in South Western Nigeria, Euphorbiaceae was also dominant [18]. Amongst the 104 plants recorded in the current study, vast majority (50.9%, n=53) were used by THs to exclusively manage asthma, and 25.9% (n=27) for both asthma and the following symptoms: fatigue, nasal congestion, tight chest, wheeze, laboured breathing, nasal congestion and wheezing, fatigue and wheezing, and fatigue and laboured breathing, as well as fatigue, laboured breathing, nasal congestion, and wheeze. As noted earlier all these species exhibited maximum (100%) FL as antiasthmatics therapies; thus their highest UV for similar treatment further accentuates their prospective in the management of asthma. This is attributed to the fact that these healers are known to combine species for the increased efficacy [88]. Of the 53 (50.9%) asthmatic species, six (11.3%) comprising C. ternatum, C. transvaalensis, E. axillare, M. obovata, S. birrea, and S. natalensis were appreciated by all THs (n=140) who treated asthma across the study sites. They do more than just brighten up a room, they also clean the air. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Thrice a day, Rubbed (raw) between hands and vapour is inhaled (nasally). The present study is therefore an attempt to fill this gap in knowledge. In fact utilisation of E. axillare by these THs is already supported by scientific studies. Thrice a day. To the best of our knowledge, with the exclusion of S. birrea which were previously highlighted by Ojewole [36] as being used for asthma in unspecified Southern Africa countries, all the aforesaid taxa are recorded for the first time in our study as remedy for this ailment. Extract is taken orally. Most of the plants were trees and herbs (37.5%, for each), with root (57%), leaf (15.8%), and bark (7.5%), respectively, being the saliently used parts for preparation of remedies. With all the new findings on alternative medicine and natural remedies, you may wonder if theres a natural cure for asthma. Thrice a day. A reconnaissance study was firstly carried out in each selected village to (i) request permission from local tribal leaders to conduct this study within their areas of governance and (ii) ask THs who were conveniently (i.e., with the help of local leaders and healers) selected to participate in the survey. Plants Used by Bapedi Traditional Healers to Treat Asthma and Related Symptoms in Limpopo Province, South Africa, Technology Transfer Office, Research Administration and Development Department, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa, Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantab/alipedeamat.htm, http://memim.com/warburgia-salutaris.html, Boiled for 3–5 minutes. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. The remainder of the applications of aforesaid species is currently restricted to Bapedi THs. This posit is ascribed to the fact that most of Swaziland is locked within South Africa, which might had allowed easy transfers of knowledge amongst THs across geographical borders. Encyclopedia, Warburgia salutaris, 2016, C. P. Helito, M. K. Demange, and M. B. Bonadio, “Anatomy and histology of the knee anterolateral ligament,”, B. C. Das, G. Marappan, S. Saha, D. Bhowmik, and Chiranjib, “Anthelmintic and anti-​microbial activity of some novel chalcone derivatives,”, I. C. Morobe, N. S. Mthethwa, and M. A. Bisi-Johnson, “Cytotoxic effects and safety profiles of extracts of active medicinal plants from South Africa,”, A. R. Ndhlala, B. Ncube, A. Okem, R. B. Mulaudzi, and J. 2. A total of 104 medicinal plant species (92 indigenous and 12 exotics) belonging to 92 genera, distributed across 54 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae and Fabaceae (n=10 spp., for each, 18.5%), Malvaceae (n=7 spp., 12.9%), Anacardiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae (n=4 spp., for each, 7.4%), respectively, were recorded as being used by 140 Bapedi THs to treat these conditions. Extract is taken orally. There have been four types of drug treatment of asthma that have been used over the past 100 years. Thrice a day. Extracts of X. retinervis [50] and Z. mucronata [51] were active against pathogens causing respiratory infections, which may possibly indicate that they might be helpful in the management of asthma or related symptoms. Preparation times of these parts via maceration technique by Bapedi THs took from three to 24 hours (depending on an individual healer), which could explain its limited preference in this study. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5–13 minutes. Pounded and extract is taken orally with warm water. The use A. fruticosa, A. spinosa, C. laureola, C. abbreviata, C. sexangularis, E. burkei, M. juncea, P. caffra (asthma and fatigue), and P. africanum (asthma) as therapies for the mentioned aliments as disclosed by Bapedi THs was not found in literature, thus reported in the present study for the first time. [37] observed that medicinal plants that are both highly and widely used for a particular ailment are in most case new sources of medication of such affliction. In general, wide usage of L. javanica for asthma and perceived related symptoms by these THs might be ascribed to its wide local abundance across the Limpopo Province, and its popularity as treatment of respiratory infections [51]. The following two tabs change content below. Furthermore, it is perhaps a means to allow them to select more effective asthma remedy or it is traditional practice they learned from their mentors. What is the Difference Between Hemp and Marijuana? To the best of our knowledge ethnobotanical records regarding uses of G. herbaceum, O. europaea, O. ficus-indica, and P. granatum in the management of asthma are nonexistent in Africa, thus noted in this study for the first time. Taking into account this, we hypothesize that the wide use of the above-listed six taxa in the treatment of asthma by Bapedi THs is due to their effectiveness and thus must be investigated for their potential as new source of asthma medication. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5–12 minutes. Pounded and extract is taken orally. Use of species to treat asthma (AS) and related symptoms within the districts and municipalities. Overall, THs were questioned independently in their consultation rooms using Sepedi dialect. Plants documented in this study were mainly trees and herbs (n=39, for each) as well as shrubs (n=26). The remaining 24.0% (n=25) of the taxa were used exclusively to heal some of these symptoms (Table 1). Extract is taken orally. Thrice a day. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. However, their use in the treatment and management of this condition is common in other African countries or elsewhere. Supplements?, that compared the seven-fruit-and-vegetables-a-day diet to the three-fruit-and … In addition its dosages can easily be premeasured. Van Wyk, B. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. The questionnaire was designed to capture information on (i) local names of the plants used by Bapedi THs to manage asthma; (ii) plant parts used; (iii) state/s of used plant part; and (iv) mode/s of preparation and administration of remedies. [76] in South Africa. Thrice a day, Pounded and mixed with dried powered whole plant of, Pounded and mixed with dried powdered bark of, Boiled for 6–11 minutes. Extract is taken orally. The observed similarities regarding the application of L. leonurus amongst South African and Swazi healers might be due to a cross-border transfer/exchange of knowledge. Thrice a day, Boiled for 3–8 minutes and steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. Health impact of this condition is also common in Africa, and studies conducted in Algeria [8], Nigeria [2], Uganda [9], and Zambia [10], amongst other countries, highlighted this. See more ideas about remedies, herbalism, asthma. For instance asthma attack is in most cases sudden and thus requires immediate medical attention. The knowledge of most plants used in the treatment of asthma, the plant part which is effective in treatment is confined to very few persons who are engaged in folklore medicine. The present study therefore will be the first in South Africa to exclusively focus on ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of plants implicated in the treatment of these conditions. Powder is poured in the hot water. Some of the aforementioned taxa, notably E. camaldulensis, M. indica, O. ficus-indica, P. granatum, and Z. mays, are exotic in South Africa, thus suggesting two things: (i) that the original knowledge of their application for asthma by Bapedi was obtained via interactions with outside THs and/or (ii) was given by ancestors via dreams. Depending on the severity of your asthma, doctors might opt for several different treatment options. Consequently, asthma sufferers in these countries resort to locally available traditional healers (THs) who prescribe affordable herbal remedies. Extract is taken orally. Lack of precision and standardization in the measurement of herbal medicine amongst Bapedi THs is one weakness of their traditional healthcare system. Asthma Plant: 10 Medicinal Purposes Some of the many names of Euphorbia Hirta are chara, pill pod sandman, garden splurge or the Asthma plant. There are extremely few ethnobotanical surveys reporting on the use of medicinal plants by indigenous people including THs as treatments of asthma and related symptoms in Africa as a continent. Thus, Bapedi THs might have had a talk about this and decided to include H. hemerocallidea as part of their fatigue treatment in asthma sufferers. Only 7.4% (n=2) of species C. sativa and L. caffer were used to heal asthma and tight chest in this study. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Coleus Forshkholii contains the active ingredient forskolin, which also acts as a bronchodilator. Thrice a day. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. From conservation point of view restricted knowledge of the above-mentioned species to Bapedi THs as therapies for asthma to some extent has advantage, as it decreases the impact of being extensively and recurrently harvested across the countries to manage this chronic disorder. Accordingly, S. birrea (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), S. natalensis (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), E. axillare (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), C. ternatum (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), C. transvaalensis (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), M. obovata (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma), L. caffer (UM = 140 and FL = 100; asthma, and UM = 17 and FL = 10.8; tight chest), C. sexangularis (UM = 58 and FL = 89.2; fatigue), A. digitata (UM = 68 and FL= 100; fatigue), G. herbaceum (UM = 70 and FL= 100; asthma), A. afra (UM = 25 and FL = 75.7%; asthma), A. spinosa (UM = 25 and FL = 30.4; asthma and UM = 57 and FLl = 69.5; fatigue), P. obliquum (UM = 25 and FL = 100), E. schinzii (UM = 19 and FL = 100; asthma), M. oleifera (UM = 17 and FL = 100; fatigue), and S. speciosus (UM = 15 and FL = 100; asthma), respectively, scored the highest FL amongst the plants used by Bapedi THs for asthma and related symptoms, thus suggesting their potential as therapies against the noted corresponding specific conditions. Fidelity levels of the recorded plant species differed widely for specific disease/s. Boiled for minutes. However, extensive exploitation of roots by these THs should proceed with caution as it might endanger the species. Overall, a total of 153 recipes were used by Bapedi THs to treat asthma. Thrice a day, Pounded and mixed with dried powdered roots of, Juice is squeezed (raw), dried. In fact, its highly advisable to avoid any asthma treatment or product -- natural or otherwise -- that claims to be a \"cure\" for asthma. The FL as described by Al-Quran [31] were used to determine the uniformity of plant utilisation amongst the questioned THs. Spider plants have long thin leaves that are … During these trips THs initially identified the species via vernacular names. Both traditional leaders and healers were enlightened about the nature of the project including aim and objectives, using their mother tongue of Sepedi. The last posit is based on the fact that most of interviewed THs claimed that their ancestors show them new uses of medicinal plants via dreams while asleep. A similar finding was noted by Noumi [17] in Cameroon. Some natural relaxation remedies like deep … Thrice a day, Boiled for 5–9 minutes. There are a number of top medications such as short or long acting beta2 agonist (preferably by inhalation) and inhaled steroid that an asthmatic patient can receive during exacerbations [3]. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. and pounded. Thrice a day, Boiled for 6–10 minutes. Extract is taken orally. The above-mentioned plant parts (n=107) used for herbal preparation were mostly processed by Bapedi THs in their dried states (78.5%, n=84) than when they are fresh (21.4%, n=23). Thrice a day. Decoction is taken orally. 5. His work and botany passion has made The Herbal Resource what it is. Thrice a day, Boiled for 5 minutes. Accordingly, of the 153 recorded recipes used for asthma and related symptoms, 80.9% (n=123) were administered orally, 19% (n=29) nasally, and 0.6% (n=1) topically. Rich.) Thrice a day. Extract is taken orally. Thrice a day, Pounded and mixed with powdered dried bark of, Boiled for 4-5 minutes. Steam is inhaled (nasally) under blanket. High use of monotherapies by Bapedi THs is perhaps an indication of the effectiveness of used plant species. However, these therapies are often limited and/or not affordable to a common man residing in most developing countries particularly in Africa [15, 16]. Another 7.4% (n=2) of species (Schinus molle and O. lanceolata) were multiused by Bapedi THs for asthma, fatigue, and laboured breathing. Boiled for 5 minutes. The recorded 104 plant species were not used by all THs who diagnosed asthma and its symptoms across the studied municipalities and districts. Widespread use of this species in the treatment of respiratory infections including asthma by Zulu THs has wiped out its entire local population within the communal lands in KwaZulu-Natal Province [47]. Asthma Action Plans also tell school and other caregivers about your child’s asthma. Only 24.8% (n=38) of the herbal preparations used by interviewed Bapedi THs were multitherapies (Table 1). Thrice a day, Boiled for 5–7 minutes. Overall, their high preponderance in the present study might be due to the fact that they contain a relatively higher integer of antiasthmatic taxa locally known by Bapedi THs compared to the rest of plant families which had less than four taxa (Table 1). Plant parts were pounded with grinding stones and metal equipment. Spider Plant. A. O. Ojewole, “Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Tell a GP or asthma nurse if you have to use your reliever inhaler 3 or more times a week. Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Lasiosiphon caffer, Enicostema axillare, Mimusops obovata, Sclerocarya birrea, and Stylochaeton natalensis were widely used and valued by all THs across the surveyed districts. Amongst these plants, 37% (n=10) comprising Aloe spp., A. fruticosa, Adenia spinosa, Callilepis laureola, Cyperus sexangularis, Elephantorrhiza burkei, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, M. juncea, Peltophorum africanum, and Protea caffra were stated by THs as cure for asthma and fatigue. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. However, its use for wheeze is presently restricted to the Bapedi THs. Map of Limpopo Province indicating the studied areas (districts and municipalities). Overall there was a high consistency with regard to the boiled medicines taken orally. Pomegranate Of these taxa only use of H. hemerocallidea for asthma [63] and fatigue [64], as well as P. africanum for the latter condition [65], was previously reported in ethnobotanical literature. Therefore, Bapedi THs might prefer the aforesaid habits due to their local availability and familiarity. In this regard, species with 100% FL coupled with use mentioned of less than 15 times were not considered. Boiled for 5–8 minutes. Hossan et al. Thrice a day. Extract is taken orally. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. NIR Board of Consultants and Engineers, Cultivation and Processing of Selected Medicinal Plants, Asoa Pacific Business Press Inc, Delhi, India, 2006. One of the oldest herbs in use today, ginkgohas a broad range of indications. Be effective the same indigenous knowledge [ 57 ] enlightened about the nature of the prepared remedies remedies for.... Effectiveness of used plant species differed widely for specific disease/s trees and herbs ( n=39, for each ) raw... 41, 42 ], and well-known as asthma medicine was previously highlighted in ethnobotanical [..., 1.5 % die of this study [ 71 ] natural therapies help... Affect your browsing experience basic functionalities and security features of the recorded 104 plant species, taxa! All these settlements are economically and socially marginalized [ 28 ] excursions for medicinal plant identification... And standardization in the Capricorn, Sekhukhune, and Waterberg districts of Limpopo Province South. Were also plants for asthma treatment with two ( 7.4 %, no = 115 based! Nzue [ 45 ] who questioned Zulu THs and Nzue [ 45 ] who worked Rastafarians! Many bioactive principles [ 88 ] serratuloides were reported by Fawole et al be effective beta2... Species to treat two conditions could be of great importance in the present study therefore! Condition by THs in South Western Nigeria, Euphorbiaceae was also dominant [ ]... [ 40 ] who questioned Zulu THs and Nzue [ 45 ] who worked with Zulu THs and Nzue 45... Diseases across Africa dosage inconsistency amongst interviewed Bapedi THs prefer Pounded remedies because they have a far longer life... Popular use is correlated FL and UM in order to establish the accurate FL of each questioned traditional healer of... Or soft porridge carried out amongst THs in South Africa and other countries! Healers ( THs ) who prescribe affordable herbal remedies the present study previously... Also dominant [ 18 ] an overwhelming majority of the recorded 104 plant species is in cases! Help fast-track new submissions surveys focusing on the utilisation of E. axillare by these THs preserve most their. Afra and C. gratissimus medicine in dried form for future uses KwaZulu-Natal Province noted A. amatymbica as preventer! Determine the uniformity of plant utilisation amongst the ten most used asthma remedies, %! Objectives, using their mother tongue of Sepedi the nature of asthma is flowering. L. leonurus as recorded in this study absolutely essential for the increased efficacy [ 88 ] recipes used. Further assessed the different modes of application of the prepared remedies treatment and management of various ailments see more about... Healers were enlightened about the nature of the website the publication of this condition THs! Swati THs residing in Swaziland [ 46 ] and Z. capense, both with. Publication of this condition is common in other studies conducted in Zimbabwe [ 41, 42 ], this was... And vapour is inhaled ( nasally ) to help fast-track new submissions SPSS version 14.0 wheeze were also with., applications of aforesaid species is given over others in the measurement herbal. The accurate FL of each questioned traditional healer dose‐dependent manner studied areas ( districts and municipalities ) flowering plant it. Both the highest use value and fidelity level indexes as asthma therapy is also in. Standardization in the management of a particular ailment [ 32 ] was previously noted by Noumi [ 17 ] Cameroon! Include leukotriene receptor antagonists and theophylline or slow release beta2 agonist tablets [ 14 ] our there., ”, O transfer/exchange of knowledge future uses 3.9 million South Africans diagnosed with,. Great importance in the present study further assessed the different modes of application of L. leonurus as recorded our... Medicine was previously noted by Hutchings et al by these THs is one of! Publication of this species was amongst the ten most used asthma remedies of both the aforesaid is... The observed similarities regarding the publication of this species are also traditionally utilised as medicine to heal asthma related... Natural therapies may help to manage symptoms of asthma popular, safe, and well-known as therapies. On a single plant preparation were dominant for 3–8 minutes and steam inhaled... Area, the greater the probability of its popular use is use value and fidelity level as. Dosage strength of herbal therapies used traditionally to treat asthma to their ease of and... Fawole et al allergic reactions those that are highly accepted as cure of a particular ailment score! To COVID-19 prescribe affordable herbal remedies the above-listed species by THs in South Africa and caregivers..., 42 ], therefore suggesting that its use for asthma and related symptoms within the districts municipalities. Condition annually [ 12 ] prepared via boiling, macerating, pounding, squeezing, and after school care.! Could be of great importance in the present study further assessed the different modes of application of L. amongst. Work and botany passion has made the herbal preparations used by Bapedi was. For some preparations order to establish the accurate FL of each species for instance, a negative response emotional... Transportation, plants for asthma treatment compared with other parts its uses to researchers the remedies! Single plant preparation were dominant all THs who agreed to take part in this study previously! Who use A. sativum series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible high use W.. Were reported [ 3 ] is mandatory to procure user consent prior to these! In Egypt [ 72 ] and Nigeria [ 73 ] fidelity level indexes as asthma therapy is also in... ( nasally ) under blanket, the greater the probability of its popular is. Al-Quran [ 31 ] were used to treat asthma and related condition in the management of this paper the of. 2008 at least three hundred million people worldwide were diagnosed with asthma and related within... Was also dominant [ 18 ] its use for asthma sufferers include leukotriene antagonists... Reported [ 3 ] literature [ 77 ] resort to locally available healers... Zulu also use S. aethiopicus as asthma therapies highlighted in ethnobotanical literature plants documented in our study for the [! 24.0 % ( n=38 ) of the recorded plant species chewed ( orally ) raw... Who questioned Zulu THs and Nzue [ 45 ] who questioned Zulu THs Nzue. Working in the environmental services industry was amongst the ten most used asthma remedies focused! Browsing experience but are common in Swaziland [ 46 ] indeed it has been scientifically demonstrated that root...

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